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Fiber optics glossary

A

Absorption

That portion of optical attenuation in optical fiber resulting from the conversion of optical power to heat .Caused by impurities in the fiber such as hydroxyl ions.

Abrasive

A material such as silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, silica, cerium oxide, emery or rouge that is used to figure, shape, or finish optical elements. Abrasives differ from polishing materials mainly in particle size.

A/B Switch

A device that accepts inputs (optical or electrical) from a primary path and a secondary path to provide automatic or manual switching in the event that the primary path signal is broken or otherwise disrupted. In optical A/B switches, optical signal power thresholds dictate whether the primary path is functioning and signals a switch to the secondary path until optical power is restored to the primary path.

Active Device

A device that requires a source of energy for its operation and has an output that is a function of present and past input signals. Examples include controlled power supplies, transistors, LEDs, amplifiers, and transmitters.

Add/Drop Multiplexing

A multiplexing function offered in connection with SONET that allows lower level signals to be added or dropped from a high-speed optical carrier in a wire center. The connection to the add/drop multiplexer is via a channel to a central office port at a specific digital speed (DS3, DS1, etc.)

ADM

Abbreviation for add-drop multiplexer. A device which adds or drops signals from a communications network.

ADSL

Abbreviation for asynchronous digital subscriber line. See DSL.

Aramid Yarn

Yellow fibers that provide cable tensile strength, support, and additional protection for the optical fiber bundle. Kevlar® is a particular brand of aramid yarn.

Acceptance Angle

The angle over which the core of an optical fiber accepts incoming light; usually measured from the fiber axis. Related to numerical aperture (NA).

Access Network

Part of the telecommunication network that connects to individual and corporate users.

Adapter

An adapter is a mechanical device designed to align fiber-optic connectors. It contains the split sleeve, also known as the interconnect sleeve, that holds the two ferrules together. Adapters can help mate or connect a variety of fiber optic cables together.

Adapter Sleeve

A mechanical fixture within an adapter body that aligns and holds two terminated fiber connectors. Adapter sleeve material is typically phosphor bronze, ceramic or polymer.

Add-drop multiplexer

A device that drops and/or add one or more optical channels to a signal.

All-Dieletric Cable

Cable made entirely of dielectric (insulating) materials without any metal conductors, armor, or strength members.

All Silica Fiber

Also known as all-glass fiber. A fiber with both a silica core and a silica cladding, regardless of the presence of a polymer overcoat or buffer.

Analog

A signal that varies continuously (e.g., sound wavers). Analog signals have frequency and bandwidth measured in hertz.

Angle of Incidence

The angle between an incident ray and the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface.

Angled physical contact (APC)

A polishing technique for fibers/ferrules that minimizes reflective light. A style of fiber-optic connector with a 5 -15 degree able on the connector tip for the minimum possible back reflection.   Usually used in AM or DWDM single-mode transmission systems using laser light sources. Typically 65-70 dB.

Aerial Plant

Cable that is suspended in the air on telephone or electric utility poles.

AGC

Abbreviation for automatic gain control. A process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a specified manner as a function of input level or another specified parameter.

AM

Abbreviation for amplitude modulation. A transmission technique in which the amplitude of the carrier  varies in accordance with the signal.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the official American standards body through which standards are published, and various other standards-setting committees are accredited.

Amplifier

A device, inserted within a transmission path, that boosts the strength of an electronic or optical signal. Amplifiers may be placed just after the transmitter (power booster), at a distance between the transmitter and the receiver (in-line amplifier), or just before the receiver (preamplifier).

Angular Misalignment

Loss at a connector due to fiber end face angles being misaligned.

ANSI

Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.  An organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system.

APC (Angled Physical Contact)

Abbreviation for angled physical contact. A style of fiber optic connector with a 5°-15° angle on the connector tip for the minimum possible backreflection.

APD (Avalanche Photodiode)

A photodiode that exhibits internal amplification of photocurrent through avalanche multiplication of carriers in the junction region.

Application-specific optical fiber (ASOF)

Fibers built for specific applications such as erbium fibers used in EDFA optical amplifiers. Other types include high N.A. fibers used for manufacturing filters and gratings, etc.

Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)

A device that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a DWDM system. An array of planar waveguides diffracts light at angles that depend on the wavelength. The central element is an array of narrow, curved waveguides that run parallel to each other between a pair of mixing regions. The waveguides differ in length by an increment that is much larger than the wavelength. The input signal enters the first mixing region and is coupled into the waveguides to pass into the second mixing region.

AR Coating

Antireflection coating. A thin, dielectric or metallic film applied to an optical surface to reduce its reflectance and thereby increase its transmittance.

Armadillo Loopback

A ruggedized fiber optic test adapter designed to loop a signal from the Tx side of a port to the Rx side, simulating a complete connection.

Armor

A protective layer, usually metal, wrapped around a cable.

ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)

A background noise mechanism common to all types of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). It contributes to the noise figure of the EDFA which causes loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

ASIC

Abbreviation for application-specific integrated circuit. A custom-designed integrated circuit.

ASTM

Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services that serve as a basis for manufacturing, procurement, and regulatory activities.

Asynchronous

Data that is transmitted without an associated clock signal. The time spacing between data characters or blocks may be of arbitrary duration. Opposite of synchronous.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

A digital transmission switching format, with cells containing 5 bytes of header information followed by 48 data types. A transmission standard widely used by the telecom industry. A digital transmission switching format with cells containing 5 bytes of header information followed by 48 data bytes. Part of the B-ISDN standard.

Attenuation

Reduction of signal magnitude, or loss, normally measured in decibels. Fiber attenuation is normally measured per unit length in decibels per kilometer. The decrease in signal strength along a fiber optic waveguide caused by absorption and scattering. Attenuation is usually expressed in dB/km.

Attenuation Meter

A device used to measure power loss in fiber optic connectors, cables, or systems.

Attenuator

1) In electrical systems, a usually passive network for reducing the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting the waveform.

2) In optical systems, a passive device for reducing the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting the waveform

Attenuation-Limited Operation

The condition in a fiber optic link when operation is limited by the power of the received signal (rather than by bandwidth or distortion).

Attenuator, optical

Passive components that produce a controlled signal attenuation in an optical fiber transmission line.

Automatic test equipment (ATE)

Test equipment that is computer programmed to perform a number of test measurements on a device without the need for changing the test setup. Especially useful in testing components and assemblies.

Avalanche Photodiode (APD)

A semiconductor photodetector with integral detection and amplification stages. Electrons generated at a p/n junction are accelerated in a region where they free an avalanche of other electrons. APDs can detect faint signals but require higher voltages than other semiconductor electronics.

Average Power

The average level of power in a signal that varies with time.

AWG (Arrayed Waveguide Grating) 

An array of curved planar waveguides that separates many optical channels at once. Also called Waveguide Array. A device, built with silicon planar lightwave circuits (PLC), that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) system.

Axial Propagation Constant

For an optical fiber, the propagation constant evaluated along the axis of a fiber in the direction of transmission.

Axis

The center of an optical fiber.

B

Backbone

A transmission network that carries high speed telecommunications between locations. This is normally the main portion of a telecommunication network, with branches going to individual buildings. In a local area network, this is usually the link between routers, switches, and bridges.

Backbone Cabling

The inter-building and intra-building cable connections between entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications closets. Backbone cabling consists of the transmission media, main and intermediate cross-connects and terminations at these locations.

Back reflection

A percent of the transmitted signal reflected back towards the source from a fiber-optic interface. Referenced in dB.

Backscatter coefficient

The ratio of the optical pulse power (not energy) at the OTDR output to the backscatter power at the near end of the fiber (z=0). This ratio is inversely proportional to the pulsewidth, because the optical pulse power is independent. It is expressed in dB.

Backbone System

A transmission network that carries high-speed telecommunications between regions (e.g., a nationwide long-distance telephone system). Sometimes used to describe the part of a local area network that carries signals between branching points.

Backscattering

Scattering of light in the direction opposite to that in which it was originally traveling. The return of a portion of scattered light to the input end of a fiber; the scattering of light in the direction opposite to its original propagation.

BR (Backreflection)

A term applied to any process in the cable plant that causes light to change directions in a fiber and return to the source. Occurs most often at connector interfaces where a glass-air interface causes a reflection.

Bandwidth

The highest frequency that can be transmitted by an analog system.. Also, the information-carrying capacity of a system (especially for digital systems). The range of frequencies within which a fiber optic waveguide or terminal device can transmit data or information.

Beam displacer

A design that uses a birefringent crystal. They are used in optical couplers, optical switches, and optical isolators.

Bandwidth-limited Operation

The condition in a fiber optic link when bandwidth, rather than received optical power, limits performance. This condition is reached when the signal becomes distorted, principally by dispersion, beyond specified limits.

Baseband

A method of communication in which a signal is transmitted at its original frequency without being impressed on a carrier. The number of signal level transitions per second in digital data. The term is often confused with bits per second. Telecommunications specialists prefer to use "bits-per-second" to provide an accurate description.

Baud

The number of signal-level transitions per second in a digital data. For some common coding schemes, this equals bits per second, but this is not true for more complex coding. Bits per second is less ambiguous. A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal symbols per second, which may or may not be equal to the data rate in bits per second.

Beamsplitter

A device that divides incident light into two separate beams. An optical device, such as a partially reflecting mirror, that splits a beam of light into two or more beams. Used in fiber optics for directional couplers.

Bending Loss

Attenuation caused by high-order modes radiating from the outside of a fiber optic waveguide which occur when the fiber is bent around a small radius. See also macrobending, microbending.

Bend Radius

The smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend before excessive attenuation or breakage occurs.

BER

The fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly. The number of coding violations detected in a unit of time.

Bi-directional

Operating in both directions

Bi-directional transceiver

A device that sends information in one direction and receives information from the opposite direction.

Binary

Base two numbers with only two values, 0 or 1.

Biconic Connector

A type of fiber optic connector consisting of two cone-shaped ferrules aligned by a mating sleeve.

Bidirectional

Operating in both directions. Bidirectional couplers split or combine light the same way when it passes through them in either direction. Bidirectional transmission sends signals in both directions, sometimes through the same fiber.

Birefringent

Having a refractive index that differs for light of different polarizations.

Bit

The smallest unit of information upon which digital communications are based; also an electrical or optical pulse that carries this information.

Bit Depth

The number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8-bit depth or 1,024 with a 10-bit depth.

Bit Period (T)

The amount of time required to transmit a logical one or a logical zero.

Bit Error Rate (BER)

The fraction of bits transmitted incorrectly. The fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.

Bit error rate tester (BERT)

Test equipment that measures the bit error rate (BET) of digital transmission systems.

BNC

Popular coax bayonet style connector, Often used for baseband video.

BPON

An abbreviation for broadband on passive optical network.

Bragg Grating

A technique for building optical filtering functions directly into a piece of optical fiber based on interferometric techniques. Usually this is accomplished by making the fiber photosensitive and exposing the fiber to deep UV light through a grating. This forms regions of higher and lower refractive indices in the fiber core.

Bypass switch

A high-speed switch to transfer an optical signal to an alternate fiber.

Bragg Scattering

Scattering of light caused by a change in refractive index, as used in Fiber Bragg Gratingsand Distributed Bragg Reflectors.

Braid

An essential part of many fiber-optic cable designs, consisting of a layer of woven yarn. Note: In the case of single-fiber loose-buffered or two-fiber "zip-cord" loose-buffered fiber-optic cables, the braid is situated between the buffer tube and jacket. In the case of cables having multiple buffer tubes, the braid is usually situated between the inner jacket and outer jacket.

Break Out

To separate the individual fibers or buffer tubes of a fiber-optic cable for the purpose of splicing or installing optical connectors.

Breakout Cable

A type of fiber optic cable containing several fibers, each with its own jacket and all of them surrounded by one common jacket. Breakout cables are designed for convenient installation of fiber optic connectors but tend to have high transmission losses due to bends in the fibers.

Broadband

Covering a wide range of frequencies or having a high data rate. The broadband label is sometimes used for a network that carries many different services or for video transmission.

Broadcast Transmission

Sending the same signal to many different places, like a television broadcasting station. Broadcast transmission can be over optical fibers if the same signal is delivered to many subscribers.

Bundle of Fibers

A rigid or flexible group of fibers assembled in a unit. Coherent fiber bundles have fibers arranged in the same way on each end and can transmit images.

Buffer

Material that is used to protect an optical fiber or cable from physical damage and to provide mechanical isolation or protection. Fabrication techniques include both tight jacket or loose tube buffering, as well as multiple buffer layers.

Buffer Tubes

A protective tubing used to protect exposed fiber. Commonly used in terminating multi-fiber cable or "fan-out" situations. Also known as furcation tubing.

Burn In

The operation of a laser diode or other component prior to its use in its intended application, as a means of testing and stabilizing it.

Bus Network

A network topology in which all terminals are attached to a transmission medium serving as a bus. Also called a daisy-chain configuration.

Butt Splice

A joining of two fibers without optical connectors arranged end-to-end by means of a coupling. Fusion splicing is an example.

Byte

Eight bits of digital data. (Sometimes parity and check bits are included, so one "byte" may include 10 bits, but only 8 of them are data.)

C

Cable

One or more optical fibers enclosed, with strength members, in a protective covering.

Cable Assembly

A cable that is connector terminated and ready for installation.

Cable Plant

The cable plant consists of all the optical elements including fiber, connectors, splices, etc. between a transmitter and a receiver.

Cable Television

Communications system that distributes broadcast and non-broadcast signals as well as a multiplicity of satellite signals, original programming and other signals by means of a coaxial cable and/or optical fiber.

Carrier

In technology, the wave that is modulated with a signal carrying information. In business, a company that provides telecommunication services.

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR)

The ratio, in decibels, of the level of the carrier to that of the noise in a receiver’s IF bandwidth before any nonlinear process such as amplitude limiting and detection takes place.

Category 5e

Category 5 (CAT5) cable is a popular twisted pair copper cable. It is used for Ethernet cable applications. Category 5e (CAT5e) can support short-run Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) networking, unlike CAT5 which supports Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps).

CATV

An acronym for cable television, derived from Community Antenna TeleVision.

C-Band

Wavelengths of about 1530 to 1565 nm, where erbium-doped fiber amplifiers have their strongest gain. Normally erbium-fiber amplifiers operate in either C- or L-band. The wavelength range between 1530 nm and 1562 nm used in some CWDM and DWDM applications.

CCIR

Abbreviation for Consultative Committee on Radio. Replaced by ITU-R.

CCITT

Abbreviation for Consultative Committee on Telephony and Telegraphy. Replaced by ITU-T.

CDMA

Abbreviation for code-division multiple access. A coding scheme in which multiple channels are independently coded for transmission over a single wideband channel using an individual modulation scheme for each channel.

Cell

A fixed-length data packet transmitted in certain digital systems such as ATM.

Center Wavelength

In a laser, the nominal value central operating wavelength. It is the wavelength defined by a peak mode measurement where the effective optical power resides (see illustration). In an LED, the average of the two wavelengths measured at the half amplitude points of the power spectrum.

Central Office

A telephone company facility for switching signals among local telephone circuits; connects to subscriber telephones. Also called a switching office.

Central Memeber

The center component of a cable that provides strength. Commonly referred to as "Central Strength Member."

Channel

A communications path or the signal sent over that path. Through multiplexing several channels, voice channels can be transmitted over an optical channel.

Channel Coding

Data encoding and error correction techniques used to protect the integrity of data. Typically used in channels with high bit error rates such as terrestrial and satellite broadcast and videotape recording.

Channel Markers

A/B Markers easily identify the TX and RX connector on each end of a fiber optic cable assembly. These channel markers assure that the proper connections are made between the transmitting and receiving ports of a transceiver.

Channel Spacing

The amount of bandwidth allocated per channel.

Chirp

In laser diodes, the shift of the laser’s center wavelength during single pulse durations.

Chromatic dispersion (CD)

The variation in the velocity of light (group velocity) as a function of wavelength. It causes pulses of a modulated laser source to broaden when traveling within the fiber, up to a point where pulses overlap and bit error rate increases. CD is a limiting factor in high-speed transmission and must be properly compensated, which implies proper testing.

Circulator, optical

The optical circulator allows for optical add/drop multiplexing in conjunction of integrating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and is commonly used in long haul, metropolitan area networks and networks. In a circulator, the internal passive components are arranged so that light passes from port 1 to 2, from port 2 to 3 and from port 3 to 4 while preventing it from traveling in the opposite direction. Because each level of the circulator is identical, the steps can be repeated as many times as necessary.

Chirped Pulse

A pulse in which the wavelength changes during the duration of the pulse.

Chromatic Dispersion

Wavelength-dependent pulse spreading in optical fibers, measured in pico seconds (of pulse spreading) per nanometer (of source bandwidth) per kilometer (of fiber length). It is the sum of waveguide and material dispersion. Reduced fiber bandwidth caused by different wavelengths of light traveling at different speeds down the optical fiber. Chromatic dispersion occurs because the speed at which an optical pulse travels depends on its wavelength, a property inherent to all optical fiber. May be caused by material dispersion, waveguide dispersion, and profile dispersion.

Circulator

Passive three-port devices that couple light from Port 1 to 2 and Port 2 to 3 and have high isolation in other directions.

Circuit

Originally a physical connection that transmits electricity or signals. Now also a communication channel that guarantees a fixed transmission capacity.

Circuit Switching

making temporary physical or virtual connections between two points, which guarantees a fixed transmission capacity.

Cladding

The layer of glass or other transparent material surrounding the light-carrying core of an optical fiber. It has a lower refractive index than the core and thus confines light in the core. Coatings may be applied over the cladding. Material that surrounds the core of an optical fiber. Its lower index of refraction, compared to that of the core, causes the transmitted light to travel down the core. This is glass or plastic, having a low refractive index, that surrounds the core of a fiber. Optical cladding promotes total internal reflection for the propagation of light in a fiber.

Cladding Mode

A mode confined to the cladding; a light ray that propagates in the cladding.

Cleave

The process of separating an optical fiber by a controlled fracture of the glass, for the purpose of obtaining a fiber end, which is flat, smooth, and perpendicular to the fiber axis.

CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)

A company that offers local telephone service in competition against dominant phone companies.

CMTS

Abbreviation for cable modem termination system.

Coarse Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (CWDM)

Transmitting signals at multiple wavelengths through the same fiber with wide spacing between optical channels. Typical spacing is several nanometers or more. Also called wide wavelength multiplexing. CWDM allows eight or fewer channels to be stacked in the 1550 nm region of optical fiber, the C-Band.

Coating

An outer plastic layer applied over the cladding of a fiber for mechanical protection. The material surrounding the cladding of a fiber. Generally a soft plastic material that protects the fiber from damage.

Coax

Coaxial cable - cable with a central metallic conductor surrounded by an insulator that is covered by a metallic sheath that runs the leg nth of the cable. 1) A cable consisting of a center conductor surrounded by an insulating material and a concentric outer conductor and optional protective covering. 2) A cable consisting of multiple tubes under a single protective sheath. This type of cable is typically used for CATV, wideband, video, or RF applications.

Coder

A device, also called an encoder that converts data by the use of a code, frequently one consisting of binary numbers, in such a manner that reconversion to the original form is possible.

Coherent Bundle of Fibers

Fibers packaged together in a bundle so they retain a fixed arrangement at the two ends and can transmit an image.

Coherent Communications

In fiber optics, a communication system where the output of local laser oscillator is mixed with the received signal, and the difference frequency is detected and amplified.

Coherence Length

That length over which energy in two separate waves remains constant. With respect to a laser, the greatest distance between two arms of an interferometric system for which suficient interferometric effects can be obtained.

Collimation

1. The process of aligning the optical axes of optical systems to the reference mechanical axes or surfaces of an instrument. 

2. The adjustment of two or more optical axes with respect to each other.

Collimator

An optical instrument consisting of a well-corrected objective lens with an illuminated slit or reticle at its focal plane. Collimators are used in lens testing to determine focal lengths, and in other metrological applications where a distant object at a known location is required.

Compression

Reducing the number of bits needed to encode a digital signal, typically by eliminating long strings of identical bits or bits that do not change in successive sampling intervals (e.g., video frames).

Composite Cable

A cable containing both fiber and copper conductors. Also known as hybrid cable.

Concatenation

The process of connecting pieces of fiber together.

Connector

A device mounted on the end of a fiber-optic cable, light source, receiver, or housing that mates to a similar device to couple light into and out of optical fibers. A connector joins two fiber ends, or one fiber end and a light source or detector. A mechanical or optical device that provides a demountable connection between two fibers or a fiber and a source or detector.

Connector Variation

The maximum value in dB of the difference in insertion loss between mating optical connectors (e.g., with remating, temperature cycling, etc.). Also called optical connector variation.

Concentricity

The measurement of how well-centered the core is within the cladding.

Constructive Interference

Any interference that increases amplitude of the resultant signal. For example, when the wave forms are in phase, they can create a resultant wave equal to the sum of multiple light waves.

Copper

Industry slang for metal wire, either twisted-pair or coaxial cable.

Copper vs Fiber

In general, fiber has many advantages over copper. In copper networks, loss increases with signal frequency- High data rates increase power loss and therefore decrease transmission distances. In fiber optic networks, loss does not change with signal frequency.

Core

The central part of an optical fiber that carries light. The light-conducting portion of a fiber, defined by its higher refraction index. The core is the center of a fiber, surrounded by concentric cladding of lower refractive index.

Coupled Modes

In fiber optics, a mode that shares energy among one or more other modes, all of which propagate together. Note: The distribution of energy among the coupled modes changes with propagation distance.

Coupler

A device that connectors three or more fiber ends, dividing one input between two or more outputs or combining two or more inputs into one output.

Coupling loss

The total optical power loss within a junction, expressed in decibels, attributed to the termination of the optical conductor.

Coupling ratio

Coupling ratio is a measure of how a device distributes light from its inputs to its outputs. It is expressed as either a percentage or in dB.

Coupling

Transfer of light into or out of an optical fiber. (Note that coupling does not require a coupler).

Coupling Efficiency

The fraction of available output from a radiant source that is coupled and transmitted by an optical fiber.

Crimp Sleeve

A crimped metal cylinder that holds the connector to the cable through the cable's strength member.

Critical Angle

The angle at which light in a high-refractive-index material undergoes total internal reflection. In geometric optics, at a refractive boundary, the smallest angle of incidence at which total internal reflection occurs.

CSRZ-DQPSK

Carrier suppressed return-to-zero differential quadrature phase shift keying. These technologies make it possible to generate DWDM signals with bit rates of 100 Gbps and beyond per channel and transmit them over long distances.

Cross-connect

Connections between terminal blocks on the two sides of a distribution frame or between terminals on a terminal block (also called straps). Also called cross-connection or jumper.

Cross-gain Modulation (XGM)

A technique used in wavelength converters where gain saturation effects in an active optical device, such as a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), allow the conversion of the optical wavelength. Better at shorter wavelengths (e.g. 780 nm or 850 nm).

Cross-phase Modulation (XPM)

A fiber nonlinearity caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of glass. The index of refraction varies with optical power level which causes different optical signals to interact.

Crosstalk (XT)

1) Undesired coupling from one circuit, part of a circuit, or channel to another.

2) Any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates and undesired effect in another circuit or channel.

CSMA/CD

Abbreviation for carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. A network control protocol in which (a) a carrier sensing is used and (b) while a transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, waits for a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send that frame again.

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)

Terminal, associated equipment, and inside wiring located at a subscriber’s premises and connected with a carrier’s communication channel(s) at the demarcation point (demarc), a point established in a building or complex to separate customer equipment from telephone company equipment.

Cut-Back Measurements

Measurement of optical loss made by cutting a fiber to compare loss of a short segment with loss of a longer one.

Cutback Technique

A destructive technique for determining certain optical fiber transmission characteristics, such as attenuation and bandwidth, by (a) performing the desired measurements on a long length of the fiber under test, (b) cutting the fiber under test at a point near the launching end, (c) repeating the measurements on the short length of fiber, and (d) subtracting the results obtained on the short length to determine the results for the residual long length.

Cutoff Mode

The highest order mode that will propagate in a given waveguide at a given frequency.

Cutoff Wavelength

The longest wavelength at which a single mode fiber can transmit two modes, or (equivalently) the shortest wavelength at which a single mode fiber carries only one more.

CW

Abbreviation for continuous wave. Usually refers to the constant optical output from an optical source when it is biased (i.e., turned on) but not modulated with a signal.

Cycles per Second

The frequency of a wave, or number of oscillations it makes per seconds. One cycle per second equals one hertz.

D

D1

A format for component digital video tape recording working to the ITU-R 601, 4:2:2 standard using 8-bit sampling.

D2

The VTR standard for digital composite (coded) NTSC or PAL signals that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M.

D3

A composite digital video recording format that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M.

D5

An uncompressed tape format for component digital video which has provisions for HDTV recording by use of 4:1 compression.

Dark Current

The noise current generated by a photodiode in the dark.

Dark Fiber

Optical fiber installed without transmitter and receiver, usually to provide expansion capacity. Some carries lease dark fibers to other companies that add equipment to transmit signals through them.

Data Dependent Jitter

Also called data dependent distortion. Jitter related to the transmitted symbol sequence. DDJ is caused by the limited bandwidth characteristics, non-ideal individual pulse responses, and imperfections in the optical channel components.

Data Rate

The number of bits of information in a transmission system, expressed in bits per second (b/s or bps), and which may or may not be equal to the signal or baud rate.

dB/km

A logarithmic unit describing the ratio of loss of power per kilometer distance

dBc

Abbreviation for decibel relative to a carrier level.

dBm

Decibels relative to 1mW.

dBµ

Decibels relative to 1 µW.

DBR

Reflection of light caused by periodic changes in refractive index in a stack of layers of different composition or-equivalently-by a corrugation at the boundary between two semiconductor layers. The period and the refractive index select one wavelength.

DCE

Abbreviation for data circuit-terminating equipment. 1) In a data station, the equipment that performs functions such as signal conversion and coding, at the network end of the line between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the line, and may be a separate or an integral part of the DTE or of intermediate equipment. 2) The interfacing equipment that may be required to couple the data terminal equipment (DTE) into a transmission circuit or channel and from a transmission circuit of a channel into the DTE.

Decibel (dB)

A logarithmic comparison of power levels, defined as ten times the base-10 logarithm of the ratio of the two power levels. One-tenth of a bel.

Delay Line

A device used to delay transmission of a signal for functions such as memory loops, sequential processing or built-in testing. The delay can be achieved by coiling long lengths of coaxial cable or optical fiber.

Demultiplexer

A device that separates a multiplexed signal into its original components; the inverse of a multiplexer.

Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Transmitting signals at multiple wavelengths through the same fiber with close spacing. Channel spacing usually is 200GHz or less in frequency units, corresponding to 1.6nm in wavelength units at 1550nm. The transmission of many of closely spaced wavelengths in the 1550 nm region over a single optical fiber. Wavelength spacings are usually 100 GHz or 200 GHz which corresponds to 0.8 nm or 1.6 nm. DWDM bands include the C-Band, the S-Band, and the L-Band.

Destructive Interference

Any interference that decreases the desired signal. For example, two light waves that are equal in amplitude and frequency, and out of phase by 180°, will negate one another.

Detector

A device that generates an electrical signal when illuminated by light. The most common fiber-optic detectors are photodiodes.

Differential group delay (DGD)

A delay caused by different arrival times of optical signals, which causes dispersion. In multimode fibers it is the delay difference of the various modes, whereas in single-mode fibers it is the delay caused by chromatic, waveguide, and polarization mode dispersion.

Differential mode delay (DMD)

A distortion of the signal-bearing light-pulse over lengths of multimode optical fiber. The light paths traveling the full width of the core will take longer to get to the receiver than those closer to the core.

DFB

Feedback arising from reflection distributed through a structure.

Diameter-mismatch Loss

The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting fiber has a diameter greater than the diameter of the receiving fiber. The loss occurs when coupling light from a source to fiber, from fiber to fiber, or from fiber to detector.

Dielectric Filter

An optical fiber that selectively transmits one wavelength and reflects others based on interference effects inside the structure. Also called interference filter.

Diffraction Grating

An array of fine, parallel, equally spaced reflecting or transmitting lines that mutually enhance the effects of diffraction to concentrate the diffracted light in a few directions determined by the spacing of the lines and by the wavelength of the light.

Digital

A data format that uses discrete varying signals to contain information.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

A service that transmits digital signals to homes at speeds of hundreds of kilobits to tens of metabits per second over twisted-pair wires at higher frequencies than voice telephone signals. There are several variations.

Diode

An electronic device that lets current flow in only one direction. Semiconductor diodes used in fiber optics contain a junction between regions of different doping. They include light emitters (LEDs and laser diodes) and detectors (photodiodes).

Diode Laser

A semiconductor diode that generates laser light. A current flowing through the diode causes electrons and holes to recombine at the junction layer between p- and n-doped regions, producing excited states that can release energy in the form of light.

DIP

Abbreviation for dual in-line package. An electronic package with a rectangular housing and a row of pins along each of two opposite sides.

Diplexer

A device that combines two or more types of signals into a single output. Usually incorporates a multiplexer at the transmit end and a demultiplexer at the receiver end.

Directional Coupler

A coupler in which light is transmitted differently when it goes in different directions.

Directionality

The suppression backreflections, generally measured in dB. If a 0 dBm signal passes through a coupler with 50 dB directionality, only -50 dBm will pass in the wrong direction.

Dispersion

The stretching of light pulses as they travel in an optical fiber, which increases their duration. The temporal spreading of a light signal in an optical waveguide caused by light signals traveling at different speeds through a fiber either due to modal or chromatic effects.

Dispersion Compensation

Offsetting the dispersion of one fiber by using different fibers or other components that have dispersion of the opposite sign. Usually done for chromatic dispersion; compensation for polarization-mode dispersion is in development.

Dispersion-compensating Fiber (DCF)

A fiber that has the opposite dispersion of the fiber being used in a transmission system. It is used to nullify the dispersion caused by that fiber.

Dispersion-compensating Module (DCM)

This module has the opposite dispersion of the fiber being used in a transmission system. It is used to nullify the dispersion caused by that fiber. It can be either a spool of a special fiber or a grating based module.

Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (DSF) 

Optical fiber with nominal wavelength of zero chromatic dispersion shifted away from 1310nm. Often used for zero dispersion-shifted fiber, which has zero chromatic dispersion at 1550nm and is not used in DWDM system.

Distortion

A change in the shape of a signal’s waveform.

Distributed feedback (DFB)

A type of laser using an internal grating to reduce line width of the laser that may be used for analog applications, e.g., AM/FM/DWDM applications.

Distributed feedback (DFB)

A type of laser using an internal grating to reduce line width of the laser that may be used for analog applications, e.g., AM/FM/DWDM applications.

Dispersion Management

A technique used in a fiber optic system design to cope with the dispersion introduced by the optical fiber. A dispersion slope compensator (illustrated) is one dispersion management technique.

Dispersion Penalty

The result of dispersion in which pulses and edges smear making it difficult for the receiver to distinguish between ones and zeros. This results in a loss of receiver sensitivity compared to a short fiber and measured in dB. The equations for calculating dispersion penalty are as follows:

Dispersion Slope

The change in dispersion with wavelength

Distributed Bragg Reflection

Reflection of light caused by periodic changes in refractive index in a stack of layers of different composition or-equivalently-by a corrugation at the boundary between two semiconductor layers. The period and the refractive index select one wavelength.

Distributed Feedback Laser (DFB Laser)

A diode laser with a corrugation in the electrically pumped part of the laser, which selects the laser wavelength by reflecting that wavelength back into the active layer.

Distribution System

Part of a cable system consisting of trunk and feeder cables used to carry signals from headend to customer terminals.

Dominant Mode

The mode in an optical device spectrum with the most power.

Dope

Thick liquid or paste used to prepare a surface or a varnish-like substance used for waterproofing or strengthening a material.

Dopant

An impurity added to an optical medium to change its optical properties. EDFAs use erbium as a dopant for optical fiber.

Double-window Fiber (Dual Window Fiber) 

1) Multimode fibers optimized for 850 nm and 1300 nm operation.

2) Single-mode fibers optimized for 1310 nm and 1550 nm operation.

Doubly Clad Fiber

Optical fiber that exhibits wide transmission bandwidth and low bending loss to reduction of guided modes as a result of the high-refractive index external cladding and the tight confinement within the core regions.

Drawing Tower

A system for fabricating optical fiber, consisting of a furnace that heats the materials, a polymer coating stage, a capstan-pulling apparatus that free-draws the preform into a fiber and a drum on which the finished product is wound.

DSR

Abbreviation for data signaling rate. The aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system expressed in bits per second (bps or b/s).

Drop

A cable that delivers service to an individual customer.

DSx

A transmission rate in the North American digital telephone hierarchy. Also called T-carrier.

DTE

Abbreviation for data terminal equipment.

1) An end instrument that converts user information into signals for transmission or reconverts the received signals into user information.

2) The functional unit of a data station that serves as a data source or a data sink and provides for the data communication control function to be performed in accordance with link protocol.

DTR

Abbreviation for data terminal ready. In a communications network, a signal from a remote transmitter that the transmitter is clear to receive data.

DTV

Abbreviation for digital television. Any technology, using any of several digital encoding schemes, used in connection with the transmission and reception of television signals. Depending on the transmission medium, DTV often uses some type of digital compression to reduce the required digital data rate. Except for artifacts of the compression, DTV is more immune (than analog television) to degradation in transmission, resulting in a higher quality of both audio and video, to the limits of signal reception.

Dual Attachment Concentrator

A concentrator that offers two attachments to the FDDI network which are capable of accommodating a dual (counter-rotating) ring.

Dual Ring (FDDI Dual Ring)

A pair of counter-rotating logical rings.

Duplex

In cables, one that contains two fibers. For connectors, one that connects two pairs of fibers. For data transmission, full-duplex transmitters and receivers simultaneously send and receive signals in both directions, but half-duplex cannot do both at the same time.

Duplex Cable

A two-fiber cable suitable for duplex transmission.

Duplex Transmission

Transmission in both directions, either one direction at a time (half-duplex) or both directions simultaneously (full-duplex).

Dynamic range

For an optical instrument, defined as the ratio (in dB) of the smallest signal that can be observed at a specified wavelength separation in the presence of a strong, nearly-saturating signal.

E

E2000 Connector

The E2000/LX-5 is like a LC but with a shutter over the end of the fiber.

Edge-Emitting Diode (ELED) 

An LED that emits light from its edge, producing more directional output than LEDs that emit from their top surface.

Edge-Emitting Laser

A semiconductor laser that emits light in the plane of its junction from the edge of the chip.

Effective Area

The area of a single-mode fiber that carries the light.

EIA

An acronym for Electronic Industries Alliance.

Ellipticity

Describes the fact that the core or cladding may be elliptical rather than circular.

Electro-Absorption Modulator

A semiconductor diode reverse-modulated so it modulates light passing through it.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Noise generated when stray electromagnetic fields induce currents in electrical conductors.

Electro-optical switch

A solid-state optical switch with no moving parts and a very fast response time.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Waves made up of oscillating electrical and magnetic fields perpendicular to one another and traveling at the speed of light. Can also be viewed as photons or quanta of energy. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and gamma rays.

Enclosure

A cabinet used to organize and enclose cable terminations and splices for use within main equipment rooms, entrance facilities, main or intermediate cross-connects and telecommunications closets.

Encoding

A means of combining clock and data information into a self synchronizing stream of signals.

Endscope

A fiber-optic bundle used for imaging and viewing inside the human body.

End Face

Term often used to describe the end of a ferrule. The end face is finished or polished to have a smooth end, which can minimize connector loss or backreflection. Typical polish types are PC, UPC, and APC.

End finish

The quality of the end surface of a fiber prepared for splicing or terminated in a connector. For an optical fiber, the optical quality of the surface at the end of the fiber.

End separation loss

The optical power loss caused by distance between the end of a fiber and a source, detector, or another fiber

E/O

Abbreviation for electrical-to-optical converter. A device that converts electrical signals to optical signals, such as a laser diode.

Equilibrium Mode Distribution (EMD)

The steady modal state of a multimode fiber in which the relative power distribution among modes is independent of fiber length.

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) 

Optical fiber doped with the rare earth element erbium, which can amplify light at 1530 to 1610nm when pumped by an external light source.

Etalon

Used in wavelength lockers, the etalon is a Fabry-Perot filter paired with a beamsplitter cube.

Error Correction

In digital transmission systems, a scheme that adds overhead to the data to permit a certain level of errors to be detected and corrected.

Error Detection

Checking for errors in data transmission. A calculation based on the data being sent; the results of the calculation are sent along with the data. The receiver then performs the same calculation and compares its results with those sent. If the receiver detects an error, it can be corrected, or it can simply be reported.

ESCON

Abbreviation for enterprise systems connection. A duplex optical connector used for computer-to-computer data exchange.

Ethernet

A local-area network standard. The original Ethernet transmits 10 Mbit/s. Other version are Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s, Gigabit Ethernet at 1Gbit/s, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. A standard protocol (IEEE 802.3) for a 10-Mb/s baseband local area network (LAN) bus using carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) as the access method. Ethernet is a standard for using various transmission media, such as coaxial cables, unshielded twisted pairs, and optical fibers.

Evanescent Wave

Guided light waves that extend beyond the boundary of a fiber core into the cladding. Evanescent waves can transfer energy between waveguides. Light guided in the inner part of an optical fiber's cladding rather than in the core, i.e. the portion of the light wave in the core that penetrates into the cladding.

Excess Loss

Loss of a passive coupler above that inherent in dividing light among the output ports. In a fiber optic coupler, the optical loss from that portion of light that does not emerge from the nominal operation ports of the device.

External Modulation

Modulation of output of a light source by an external device.

Extrinsic Loss

Splice losses arising from the splicing process itself.

Extinction Ratio

The ratio of the low, or OFF optical power level (PL) to the high, or ON optical power level (PH).

Extinction Ratio

The ratio of the power of a plane-polarized beam that is transmitted through a polarizer placed in its path with its polarizing axis parallel to the beam's plane, as compared with the transmitted power when the polarizer's axis is perpendicular to the beam's plane.

Eye Pattern

A pattern formed by overlaying traces of a series of transmitted pulses in a visual display. The more open the eye, the sharper the distinction between on and off pulses. A diagram that shows the proper function of a digital system. The "openness" of the eye relates to the BER that can be achieved.

Fabry-Perot (FP)

A standard laser diode consisting of a semiconductor cleaved on each end forming a resonant chamber to create the lasing effect. Used in digital applications.

F

Fabry Perot Laser

A laser oscillator in which two mirrors are separated by an amplifying medium with an inverted population, making a Fabry-Perot cavity. Standard diode lasers are Fabry-Perot lasers.

Fall Time

Also called turn-off time. The time required for the trailing edge of a pulse to fall from 90% to 10% of its amplitude; the time required for a component to produce such a result. Typically measured between the 90% and 10% points or alternately the 80% and 20% points.

Fast Axis

In a birefringent material, the index of refraction varies with the direction of vibration of a lightwave. That direction having a low refractive index is the fast axis; at right angles to it is the slow axis, with a high index of refraction.

Faraday Effect

A phenomenon that causes some materials to rotate the polarization of light in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation. Also called magneto-optic effect.

Fan-Out

A multi-fiber cable constructed in a tight buffered tube design. At a termination point, cable fibers must be separated from the cable to their separate connection positions.

FC Connector

FC stands for Fixed Connection. It is fixed by way of a threaded barrel housing. FC connectors are typical in test environments and for singlemode applications.

FCC

Abbreviation for Federal Communications Commission. The U.S. Government board of five presidential appointees that has the authority to regulate all non-Federal Government interstate telecommunications as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States.

FC/PC

See FC. A threaded optical connector that uses a special curved polish on the connector for very low backreflection. Good for single-mode or multimode fiber.

FCS

Abbreviation for frame check sequence. An error-detection scheme that (a) uses parity bits generated by polynomial encoding of digital signals, (b) appends those parity bits to a digital signal, and (c) uses decoding algorithms that detect errors in the received digital signal.

FDA

Abbreviation for Food and Drug Administration. Organization responsible for, among other things, laser safety.

Frequency-division Multiplexing (FDM)

A method of deriving two or more simultaneous, continuous channels from a transmission medium by assigning separate portions of the available frequency spectrum to each of the individual channels.

Ferrule

A tube within a connector with a central hole that contains and aligns a fiber.

Fiber Amplifier

An optical fiber doped to amplify light from an external source. The most important type is the erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fiber Bandwidth

The lowest frequency at which the magnitude of the fiber transfer function decreases to a specified fraction of the zero frequency value. Often, the specified value is one-half the optical power at zero frequency.

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) 

An optical fiber in which the core refractive index varies periodically, causing Bragg scatting at wavelengths selected by the period and refractive index. A fiber Bragg grating reflects the selected wavelength and transmits others.

Fiber-optic test procedure (FOTP)

Specific substandards within the TIA/EIA 455 standard, used predominantly for test and measurement.

Fiber-optics

Light transmission through optical fibers for communications purposes.

Fiber sensor

A sensing device in which the active sensing element is an optical element attached directly to an optical fiber. The measured quantity changes the optical properties of the fiber so that it can be detected and measured.

Fiber to the building/business (FTTB)

A topological reference to a PON network that supports multiple subscribers in a single structure, i.e., a business or a building.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

A standard for a 100 Mbit/s fiber optic local-area network. Abbreviation for fiber distributed data interface.

1) A dual counter-rotating ring local area network.

2) A connector used in a dual counter-rotating ring local area network (illustrated).

Fiber Fuse

A mechanism whereby the core of a single-mode fiber can be destroyed at high optical power levels.

Fiber Grating

An optical fiber in which the refractive index of the core varies periodically along its length, scattering light in a way similar to a diffraction grating, and transmitting or reflecting certain wavelengths selectively.

Fiber Optic Attenuator

A component installed in a fiber optic transmission system that reduces the power in the optical signal. It is often used to limit the optical power received by the photodetector to within the limits of the optical receiver.

Fiber-Optic Gyroscope

A coil of optical fiber that can detect rotation about its axis.

Fiber Optic Cable

A cable containing one or more optical fibers.

Fiber Optic Communication System

The transfer of modulated or unmodulated optical energy through optical fiber media which terminates in the same or different media.

Fiber Optic Link

A transmitter, receiver, and cable assembly that can transmit information between two points.

Fiber Optic Modems

Fiber optic modems are used in fiber optic networks for sending and receiving data.

Fiber Optic Ribbon

A coherent optical fiber bundle in which the configuration is flat rather than round, giving an output in a line.

Fiber Optic Sensor

Any device in which variations in the transmitted power or the rate of transmission of light in optical fiber are the means of measurement or control. Fibers can be used to measure temperature, pressure, strain, voltage, current, liquid level, rotation and particle velocity

Fiber Optic Span

An optical fiber/cable terminated at both ends which may include devices that add, subtract, or attenuate optical signals.

Fiber Optic Subsystem

A functional entity with defined bounds and interfaces which is part of a system. It contains solid state and/or other components and is specified as a subsystem for the purpose of trade and commerce.

Fiberscope

An optical instrument consisting of an objective lens, a coherent (usually flexible) fiber bundle and an eyepiece to examine the output of the fiber bundle.

Fiber to the Curb (FTTC)

Fiber optic service to a node that is connected by wires to several nearby homes, typically on a block.

Fiber to the desk (FTTD)

Transmission system using fiber-optics as the medium throughout, from transmitter to desktop.

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

A network in which optical fibers bring signals all the way to homes.

Fibre Channel

A standard for transmitting signals at 100 Mbit/s to 4.25 Gbit/s over fiber or (at slower speeds) copper. An industry-standard specification that originated in Great Britain which details computer channel communications over fiber optics at transmission speeds from 132 Mb/s to 1062.5 Mb/s at distances of up to 10 kilometers.

Fiber Tracer

An instrument that couples visible light into the fiber to allow visual checking of continuity and tracing for correct connections.

Fiber Identifier

A device that clamps onto a fiber and couples light from the fiber by bending, to identify the fiber and detect high speed traffic of an operating link or a 2 kHz tone injected by a test source.

Figure 8 Cable

An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strand which supports the cable are integrally jacketed. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure 8.

Filter

A device which transmits only part of the incident energy and may thereby change the spectral distribution of energy.

Filled Cable

A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a gel material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable.

FITL

Fiber in the loop. Fiber-in-the-loop (FITL): Fiber optic service to a node that is located in a neighborhood.

Flooding Compound

A substance surrounding the buffer tubes of a fiber-optic cable, to prevent water intrusion into the interstices in the event of a breach of the jacket.

Fluoride Glasses

Materials that have the amorphous structure of glass but are made of fluoride compounds (e.g., zirconium fluoride ) rather than oxide compounds (e.g., silica). Suitable for very long wavelength transmission. This material tends to be destroyed by water, limiting its use.

FM (Frequency Modulation)

A method of transmission in which the carrier frequency varies in accordance with the signal.

Forward Error Correcting (FEC)

A communication technique used to compensate for a noisy transmission channel. Extra information is sent along with the primary data payload to correct for errors that occur in transmission.

FOTP (Fiber Optic Test Procedure)

Standards developed and published by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) under the EIA-RS-455 series of standards.

FWM - Four Wave Mixing (FWM) 

A nonlinearity common in DWDM systems where multiple wavelengths mix together to form new wavelengths, called interfering products. Interfering products that fall on the original signal wavelength become mixed with the signal, mudding the signal, and causing attenuation. Interfering products on either side of the original wavelength can be filtered out. FWM is most prevalent near the zero-dispersion wavelength and at close wavelength spacings.

Fiber

A single optical transmission element characterized by a core, a cladding, and a coating.

FP

Abbreviation for Fabry-Perot. Generally refers to any device, such as a type of laser diode, that uses mirrors in an internal cavity to produce multiple reflections.

Free-Space Optics

Also called free-space photonics. The transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere via lasers, LEDs, or IR-emitting diodes (IREDs) to obtain broadband communications.

Frame

A fixed-length block of data transmitted as a unit; SONET transmits frames. In video, one of a series of images shown in sequence.

Frequency

The number of times an electromagnetic wave oscillates in a second, or the number of wave peaks that pass a point in second; measured in hertz.

FDM - Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) 

Combining analog signals by assigning each a different carrier frequency and merging them in a single signal with a broad range of frequencies

Frequency-shift Keying (FSK)

Frequency modulation in which the modulating signal shifts the output frequency between predetermined values. Also called frequency-shift modulation, frequency-shift signaling.

Fresnel Reflection Loss

Reflection losses at the ends of fibers caused by differences in the refractive index between glass and air. The maximum reflection caused by a perpendicular air-glass interface is about 4% or about -14 dB.

Full spectrum WDM (FSWDM)

A technology platform based on the use of spectrally enriched optical pulses for signal transmission at speeds of 10 Gbps and higher.

FSAN

Abbreviation for full service access network. A forum for the world’s largest telecommunications services providers and equipment suppliers to work define broadband access networks based primarily on the ATM passive optical network structure.

FTTB

Fiber to the Building. This is in reference to fiber optic cable, carrying network data, connected all the way from an Internet service provider to a customer's physical building.

FTTC

An abbreviation for fiber to the curb.

FTTD

An abbreviation for fiber to the desk.

FTTH

An abbreviation for fiber to the home.

FTTP

Stands for Fiber to the Premises.

FTTx

An abbreviation for 'Fiber to the x'. The 'x' is a variable which can mean fiber to the: premises, curb, home, business, or desk, for example.

Full Duplex

In data transmission, transmitters and receivers that simultaneously send and receive signals in both directions.

Fundamental Mode

The lowest order mode of a waveguide. Note: In optical fibers, the fundamental mode is designated LP01 or HE11.

Fused Fibers

A bundle of fibers melted together so they maintain a fixed alignment with respect to each other in a rigid rod.

Fused Coupler

A method of making a multimode or single-mode coupler by wrapping fibers together, heating them, and pulling them to form a central unified mass so that light on any input fiber is coupled to all output fibers.

Fusion Splice

A splice made by melting the tips of two fibers together so they form a solid junction.

Fusion Splicer

An instrument that permanently bonds two fibers together by heating and fusing them.

Furcation Tubing

A protective tubing that protects exposed fiber. Commonly used in terminating multi-fiber cable or "fan-out" situations. Also referred to as buffer tubing.

FUT

Abbreviation for fiber under test. Refers to the fiber being measured by some type of test equipment.

FWHM

Abbreviation for full width half maximum. Used to describe the width of a spectral emission at the 50% amplitude points. Also known as FWHP (full width half power).

G

Gallium Aluminum Arsenide (GaAlAs)

A semiconductor compound used in LEDs, diode lasers, and certain detectors.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

A semiconductor compound used in LEDs, diode lasers, detectors and electronic components.

Gap Loss

Loss resulting from the end separation of two axially aligned fibers.

Gap Loss Attenuator

An optical attenuator that exploits the principle of gap loss to reduce the optical power level when inserted in-line in the fiber path. e.g., to prevent saturation of the receiver.

Gaussian Beam

A beam pattern used to approximate the distribution of energy in a fiber core. It can also be used to describe emission patterns from surface-emitting LEDs. Most people would recognize it as the bell curve (illustrated).

GBE

An abbreviation for Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit networking, or commonly called 10-Gigabit