Seven types of 100G QSFP28 transceivers overview

 

With the development of 100G Ethernet, the demand for 100G optical module is increasing. Nowadays, 100G optical modules account for a significant portion of network construction costs. Among them, QSFP28 has become the preferred package type for 100G optical modules due to its small size and low power consumption. 100G QSFP28 optical modules are available in a wide variety of types and are usually used in data centers, and each one has its own characteristics, so you can choose the right one according to your actual needs.

The standards of 100G QSFP28 optical module are defined by two main organizations (IEEE and MSA). IEEE defines the standards of QSFP28 SR4, QSFP28 LR4, QSFP28 ER4 and QSFP28 ZR4. MSA defines the standards of QSFP28 CWDM4 and QSFP28 PSM4.

In detail, “QSFP” is short for Quad (4-channel) Small Form Factor Pluggable, which refers to the package type; the number “28” indicates that the maximum transmission rate of each channel is 28Gbps; “SR” means short range (up to 100m); “LR” means long range (up to 20km); “ER” means extended range (up to 40km); “ZR” means ze best range (up to 80km); and the number “4” in QSFP28 CWDM4 and QSFP28 PSM4 are both indicate that the module has 4 channels, we will discuss their difference later.

 

 

 1. 100G QSFP28 SR4

 

Product Features

  • Hot-pluggable QSFP28 form factor
  • Supports 103.1Gb/s  aggregate bit rates
  • Power dissipation < 3.5W
  • RoHS-6 compliant
  • Commercial case temperature range of 0°C to 70°C
  • Single 3.3V power supply
  • Maximum link length of 100m on OM4 Multimode Fiber (MMF)
  • 4x25Gb/s 850nm VCSEL-based transmitter
  • 4x25G electrical interface
  • Single MPO12 receptacle
  • I2C management interface

 

Application

  • 100GBASE-SR4 100G Ethernet
  • Data Center Interconnect
  • Infiniband QDR and DDR interconnects
  • Enterprise networking

 

 

 

 

The 100G QSFP28 SR4 optical module is a parallel optical module with 4 independent transmitting and receiving channels, an 8/12-core MTP/MPO interface, and a maximum transmission distance of up to 100M with a multi-mode patch cord OM3/OM4. The main application scenario is a 100G data center. The 100G QSFP28 SR4 optical module has an operating wavelength of 850nm, an operating temperature range of 0°C to 70°C, and a built-in digital diagnostic function (DDM).

100G QSFP28 SR4 diagram

 

 

 2. 100G QSFP28 LR4

 

Product Features

  • 1Gb/s, each lane bit rate 25.78 Gb/s
  • Up to 10km transmission on SMF
  • LAN WDM DFB laser and PINreceiver
  • I2C interface with integrated Digital Diagnostic monitoring
  • QSFP28 MSA package with duplex LC connector
  • Single +3.3V power supply
  • Maximum power consumption 4W
  • Operating case temperature: 0 to +70°C
  • Complies with EU Directive 2011/65/EU (RoHS 6/6)

 

Applications

  • 100GBASE-LR4 100G Ethernet

 

 

QSFP28 LR4 100G optical module, generally used together with LC single-mode fiber cables, the maximum transmission distance can reach 10km. The QSFP28 LR4 100G optical module converts 4X25Gbps electrical signals into 4 LAN WDM optical signals and then multiplexes them into a single channel to realize 100G optical transmission. At the receiving end, the module demultiplexes 100G optical input into 4 LAN WDM optical signals and then converts them into 4 electrical signal output channels.

 

 

 3. 100G QSFP28 ER4

 

Product Features

  • Hot-pluggable QSFP28 MSA form factor
  • Compliant to Ethernet 100GBASE-ER4 Lite
  • Supports 103.1Gb/s aggregate bit rate
  • Up to 30km reach for G.652 SMF without FEC
  • Up to 40km reach for G.652 SMF with FEC
  • Single +3.3V power supply
  • Operating case temperature: 0~70°C
  • Transmitter: cooled 4x25Gb/s LAN WDM EML TOSA (1295.56, 1300.05, 1304.58, 1309.14nm)
  • Receiver: 4x25Gb/s APD ROSA
  • 4x25G electrical interface (OIF CEI-28G-VSR)
  • Maximum power consumption 4.5W
  • Duplex LC receptacle
  • RoHS-6 compliant

 

Applications

  • 100GBASE-ER4 EthernetLinks
  • Infiniband QDR and DDR interconnects
  • Client-side 100G Telecom connections

 

 

100G QSFP28 ER4 optical module supports the 100G data connection by using WDM multiplexing wavelength division technology. This module transmits 100G Ethernet signal over 4 wavelengths with LC duplex connectors and it can reach a maximum transmission distance of up to 40KM when used with single-mode fiber. This product is a 100Gb/s transceiver module designed for optical communication, applications compliant to Ethernet 100GBASE-ER4 Lite standard. Click to know the difference between 100G QSFP28 ER4 and 100G QSFP28 ER4-Lite.

 

 

 4. 100G QSFP28 ZR4

 

Product Features

  • QSFP28 MSA compliant
  • Hot-pluggable 38 pin electrical interface
  • 4 LAN-WDM lanes MUX/DEMUX design
  • 4x25G electrical interface
  • Maximum power consumption 6.5W
  • LC duplex connector
  • Supports 103.125Gb/s aggregate bit rate
  • Up to 80km transmission on single-mode fiber
  • Operating case temperature: 0℃ to 70℃
  • Single 3.3V power supply

 

Applications

  • 100GBASE-ZR4 100G Ethernet
  • Telecom networking

 

  100G QSFP28 ZR4 Transceiver Block Diagram

 

100G QSFP28 ZR4 optical module is used to connect switches, routers and transmission equipment in data center, and the transmission distance is up to 80km on single-mode fiber(SMF). QSFP28 ZR4 is the best choice for 100G long-distance DCI. It does not need to deploy the old CFP / CFP2 interface, and can achieve a point-to-point solution up to 80km without optical amplification and dispersion compensation.

 

 

 5. 100G QSFP28 SRBD

 

Product Features

  • Compliant to the 100GbE XLPPI electrical specification per IEEE 802.3bm
  • Compliant to QSFP28SFF-8636 Specification
  • Aggregate bandwidth of > 100Gbps
  • Dual-wavelength VCSEL bi-directional optical interface, PAM4 2 × 50-Gb/s 850nm/900 nm
  • QSFP28MSA compliant
  • Capable of over 70m transmission on OM3 Multimode Fiber (MMF)and 100m on OM4 MMF
  • Single +3.3V power supply operating  
  • With digital diagnostic functions  
  • Temperature range 0°C to 70°C  
  • RoHS Compliant Part
  • Utilizes a standard LC duplex fiber cable allowing reuse of existing cable infrastructure

 

Applications

  • 100 Gigabit Ethernet interconnects
  • Datacom/Telecom switch & router connections
  • Data aggregation and backplane applications
  • Proprietary protocol and density applications

 

 

100G QSFP28 SR BD Optical Transceiver with duplex LC Optical connector uses the wavelengths of 850nm and 900nm, realizing single-fiber bi-directional transmission through WDM multiplexing and using multi-mode fiber(MMF), greatly reducing the difficulties for customers in engineering use and maintenance.

 

100G QSFP28 SRBD Transceiver Functional Diagram

 

This cost-effective optical module solution adopts 100G BIDI optical devices developed by 5G optical chips with an operating temperature of 0~70℃ (32 to 158°F) and a maximum power of 4W. It can realize 100G Link distances up to 70m over OM3 fiber, 100m over OM4 fiber, and 150m over OM5 fiber respectively. Compared with the conventional 100G QSFP28 SR4, the 100G QSFP28 BIDI optical module saves 75% of optical fiber resources and can be widely applied in telecommunications, data centers, and wireless communications.

 

 

 6. 100G QSFP28 PSM4

 

Product Features

  • 4 independent full-duplex channels
  • Up to 28Gb/s data rateper channel
  • QSFP28 MSA compliant
  • Compliant to IEEE 802.3bm 100GBASE PSM4
  • Up to 2km reach for G.652 SMF
  • Maximum power consumption 5W
  • Single +3.3V power supply
  • Operating case temperature: 0~70°C
  • RoHS-6compliant

 

Application

  • 100G Ethernet links
  • Infiniband QDR and DDR interconnects
  • Datacenter and Enterprise networking

 

 

Fiber Mall 100G QSFP28 PSM4 Transceiver

 

PSM means “Parallel Single-Mode Fiber”, the 100G PSM4 standard is a multi-source agreement (MSA). The purpose of the standard is to provide a low-cost solution for transmitting four 25Gbps wavelengths through single-mode fibers outside the IEEE 100G Ethernet specification. It is specially designed for network applications with a transmission distance of 500m and 2km. The 100G QSFP28 PSM4 optical module uses 8-core single-mode fiber(SMF) to form four independent channels with 25G data transmission.

 

 

 7. 100G QSFP28 CWDM4

 

Product Features

  • 1Gb/s, each lane bit rate 25.78 Gb/s
  • Up to 2km transmission on single-mode fiber (SMF) with FEC
  • LAN WDM DFB laser and PINreceiver
  • I2C interface with integrated Digital Diagnostic monitoring
  • QSFP28 MSA package with duplex LC connector
  • Single +3.3V power supply
  • 4 CWDM lanes MUX/DEMUX design
  • 100G CWDM4 MSA Technical Spec Rev1.1
  • Maximum power consumption 3.5W
  • Operating case temperature: 0 ~70°C
  • Complies with EU Directive 2011/65/EU (RoHS 6/6)

 

Application

  • Data Center Interconnect
  • 100G Ethernet
  • Infiniband QDR and DDR interconnects
  • Enterprise networking

 

 

CWDM means Coarse Wavelength-division Multiplexing. 100G CWDM4 QSFP28 is a standard released by the CWDM4 MSA organization in 2014. CWDM4 is kind of special among all the 100G optical modules. The module converts 4 inputs channels (ch) of 25Gb/s electrical data to 4 CWDM optical signals and multiplexes them into a single channel for 100Gb/s optical transmission.  Reversely, on the receiver side, the module optically de-multiplexes a 100Gb/s input into 4 CWDM channels signals and converts them to 4 channel output electrical data. The central wavelengths of the 4 CWDM channels are 1271, 1291, 1311 and 1331nm. And it contains a duplex LC connector for the optical interface and a 38-pin connector for the electrical interface.

The cost of the CWDM4 optical module is higher than that of the PSM4 optical module because of the use of wavelength division multiplexer, but CWDM4 requires only two single-mode fibers for transceiving and transmitting in both directions, which is much less than the eight single-mode fibers of PSM4. Therefore, the total cost of the PSM4 solution rises very fast as the distance increases. In practice, it is necessary to consider whether to use PSM4 or CWDM4 based on fiber deployment.

 

Summary

 

100G QSFP28SR4PSM4CWDM4/IR4LR4ER4ZR4SRBD
Max Distance100m500m/2km2km/10km10km/20km40km80km100m
ConnectorMPO 12MPO 12Duplex LCDuplex LCDuplex LCDuplex LC Duplex LC
Transmitter TypeVCSELDFBLAN WDM DFBLAN WDM DFBLAN WDM EML EMLVCSEL
Wavelength 850nm 1310nm 1310nm 1310nm1310nm1296-1309nm LWDM850nm & 900nm

 

 

 

As shown in the figures above, when selecting a 100G QSFP28 optical module, the need for transmission distance is considered first, then when the transceivers are at the same transmission distance, the final selection is based on fiber deployment and specific other needs.

 

 

 

 

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